The spectrum of hypertensive heart disease is broad, with various manifestations potentially culminating in heart failure (HF) and death. Abnormalities associated with disease progression include left ventricular hypertrophy, systolic and diastolic dysfunction, and their clinical manifestations. Try these 2 questions to help bring points on the spectrum into sharper focus.
Which of the following statements regarding hypertension and heart failure are TRUE:
A. Data from the Framingham Heart Study (n=5,143) demonstrated that hypertension preceded the development of HF in more than 90% of all newly diagnosed HF patients (20-year follow-up).
B. At 80 years of age, the lifetime risk for HF in the Framingham cohort was approximately 20% and that risk was doubled for patients with a blood pressure of 160/100 mm Hg compared to those with a reading of 140/90 mm Hg.
C. The risk for HF is the same in men and women with hypertension.